gendarmerie n : French police force; a group of gendarmes or gendarmes collectively [syn: gendarmery]
A gendarmerie or gendarmery (, or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. The members of such a body are called gendarmes. The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) can also be used (e.g. Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon, except in the Netherlands.
EtymologyThe word gendarme comes from Old French gens d'armes, meaning men-at-arms. Historically, during the Late Medieval to the Early Modern period, the term referred to a heavily armoured cavalryman of noble birth, primarily serving in the French army (see:Gendarme (historical)). The word gained policing connotations after the French Revolution when the Maréchaussée of the Ancien Regime was renamed the Gendarmerie. Before this, a gendarmerie was known as a maréchaussée (marshalcy).
In the United Kingdom, there is a body called Her Majesty's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms. Gentlemen at Arms is in fact a near etymological equivalent to the term gendarme. This body is, however, purely ceremonial and is not considered a gendarmerie.
Historically the spelling in English is gendarmery, but the French spelling gendarmerie is now more common. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) still uses gendarmery as the principal spelling while Merriam-Webster uses gendarmerie as the principal spelling.
Title and statusThese forces are normally titled "gendarmerie", but gendarmeries may bear other titles, for instance Carabiniers in Italy and Chile, or Guardia Civil in Spain.
Some forces which are no longer considered military retain the title "gendarmerie" for reasons of tradition. For instance, the French language title of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC) (i.e. Royal Gendarmerie of Canada) because it was traditionally a military force (although not part of the army) and because it retains the honorific status of a military force. The Argentine Gendarmerie is a military force (in terms of training, identity and public perception, and it was involved in combat in the Falklands War), but for legal purposes is a "security force", not an "armed force", because this is necessary under Argentine law in order to allow jurisdiction over the civilian population.
Since every country uses institutional terms such as "gendarmerie" as it wishes, there are cases in which the term may become confusing. For instance, the Swiss cantonal "gendarmeries" are not military, and are in fact the uniformed police of French-speaking cantons. In Chile, confusingly, the word "gendarmerie" can for historic reasons be used to refer to the prison service, while as previously mentioned the actual gendarmerie force is called the "carabineros".
As a result of their duties within the civilian population, gendarmeries are sometimes described as "para-military" rather than "military" forces (essentially in the English-speaking world where policing is rarely associated with military forces) although this description rarely corresponds to their official status and capabilities. Gendarmes are often deployed in military situations, sometimes in their own country, and often in humanitarian deployments abroad.
A gendarmerie may come under the authority of a ministry of defence (e.g. Italy or France) or a ministry of the interior (e.g. Argentina and Romania), or even both at once (e.g. Chile and Italy). Generally there is some coordination between a ministry of defence and a ministry of the interior over the use of gendarmes.
Gendarmeries are police services, but in many countries (e.g. France) the word "police" normally implies civilian police. Gendarmeries are military police, however the term "military police" can be misleading, since in English it carries strong implications of policing within the military ("provost" policing), which is not the basic purpose of a gendarmerie (although in many countries it is a task which gendarmes carry out). In countries where the gendarmerie and civilian police co-exist there may exist rivalries and tensions between the forces. There may also be different reputations, with the gendarmeries generally having a better reputation than civilian police.
In some cases, a police service's military links are ambiguous and it can be unclear whether a force should be defined as a gendarmerie or not, (e.g. Mexico's Policia Federal Preventiva, Brazilian Polícia Militar, or the former South African Police until 1994). Services such as the Italian Guardia di Finanza would not normally be defined as a gendarmerie (but at times might be) since the service is both of ambiguous military status and does not have general policing duties in the civilian population. In Russia, the Interior Troops are military units with quasi-police duties.
In comparison to civilian police forces, gendarmeries may provide a more disciplined force whose military capabilities (e.g. armored group in France with armored personnel carriers and heavy armoured cars with 90 mm cannons) make them more capable of dealing with armed groups and with all types of violence. On the other hand, the necessity of a more stringent selection process for military service, especially in terms of physical prowess and health, restricts the pool of potential recruits in comparison to those a civilian police force could select from.
Gendarmeries may also provide various military or police services. For instance in France, the gendarmerie is in charge of crowd and riot control (Gendarmerie Mobile), counter-terrorism and hostage rescue (GIGN and EPIGN), maritime surveillance, police at sea and coast guard (Gendarmerie maritime), control and security at airports and air traffic police (Gendarmerie des transports aériens), official buildings guard, honorary services and protection of the President (Garde Républicaine), mountain rescue (Peloton de Gendarmerie de Haute Montagne) and security of nuclear weapons sites.
Role in modern conflictGendarmes play an important role re-establishing law and order in conflict areas, a task which is suited to their purpose, training and capabilities. Gendarmeries are widely used in peacekeeping operations, for instance in the former Yugoslavia.
The use of military organisations to police civilian populations is common to many time periods and cultures. Although it cannot be considered a French concept, the French gendarmerie has been the most influential model of such an organisation.
Many countries that were once under French influence have a gendarmerie. For instance, both Belgium and Austria had gendarmeries through Napoleonic influence, but both these gendarmeries, have merged with the civil police, in 2001 and 2005 respectively. Many former French colonies, especially in Africa, also have gendarmeries.
A common gendarmerie symbol is a flaming grenade, which was first used as a gendarmerie symbol by the French.
List of gendarmeries
List of modern gendarmeries
- Algeria: Gendarmerie Nationale (El Dark El Watani)
- Argentina: Gendarmería Nacional Argentina
- Benin: Gendarmerie
- Bhutan: Royal Bhutan Police
- Brazil: Polícia Militar (which constitute a separate force in each state)
- Bulgaria: Zhandarmeriya (Жандармерия)
- Burkina Faso: Gendarmerie
- Cameroon: Gendarmerie
- Canada: Royal Canadian Mounted Police (civilian status)
- Catalonia: Mossos d'Esquadra
- Central African Republic: Gendarmerie
- Chad: Gendarmerie
- Chile: The Carabiniers of Chile
- China: People's Armed Police
- Colombia: Colombian National Police
- Comoros: Gendarmerie
- Congo: Gendarmerie
- Djibouti: Gendarmerie
- Egypt: Central Security Forces
- France: Gendarmerie Nationale
- Gabon: Gendarmerie
- Guinea: Gendarmerie
- Hungary: Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat
- Iran had a gendermerie, (which is forgotten in the map above).
- Iraq: National Police (not to be confused with civilian Iraqi Police Service, although at present both are highly militarised)
- Israel: Israel Border Police (Mishmar HaGvul)
- Italy: Carabinieri (Carabiniers)
- Ivory Coast: Gendarmerie
- Lebanon: Gendarmerie Libanaise (Amen el Dakhli also known as El Darak)
- Madagascar: Gendarmerie
- Mali: Gendarmerie
- Mauritania: Gendarmerie
- Mexico: Policia Federal Preventiva (PFP) (civilian status, but largely composed of military personnel transferred en masse from the Mexican army's 3rd Military Police Brigade)
- Republic of Moldova: Trupele de Carabinieri
- Monaco: Carabiniers
- Morocco: Gendarmerie Royale
- Netherlands: Koninklijke Marechaussee
- Niger: Gendarmerie
- Poland: Żandarmeria Wojskowa
- Portugal: Guarda Nacional Republicana
- Romania: Jandarmeria Română
- Rwanda: Gendarmerie
- San Marino: Gendarmeria
- Senegal: Gendarmerie
- Serbia: Žandarmerija (Жандармерија) (1860–1945; reformed 2001)
- Spain: Guardia Civil
- Switzerland: The Gendarmerie are the uniformed police of the French Cantons.
- Togo: Gendarmerie
- Turkey: Jandarma
- United States: many of the various State Police forces could be described as gendarmeries.
- Vatican City: Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano
- European Gendarmerie Force - Formed by five members of the European Union: France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands, Its purpose was the creation of a European intervention force, which would have militarised police (aka a gendarmerie) functions and be specialized in crisis management. More countries will be allowed to join in the future.
List of former gendarmeries
- Austria: Bundesgendarmerie (1849–2005) Became basis of Austrian Bundespolizei in 2005
- Belgium: Gendarmerie/Rijkswacht (civilian status from 1991; merged with federal police in 2001)
- Czechoslovakia: Československé četnictvo (1918-1939)
- Crete: Cretan Gendarmerie
- Denmark: Grænsegendarmeriet (1838–1958), De Blå Gendarmer (1885–1897)
- Germany: Gendarmerie or Landjäger in some territories until the mid-20th century, Federal Border Guard (Bundesgrenzschutz) until 1994
- Greece: chorofilaki merged in 1984 with astinomia poleon and formed the current Greek national police elliniki astinomia
- Hungary: Csendőrség (until 1945), after the change of the regime in 1989, a gendarmerie-type police force within the frameworks of the Hungarian National Police: Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat
- Italian East Africa - Italian Africa Police
- Italian Salò republic - Italian National Republican Guard
- Italian Somaliland: Somalia Gendarmerie (British military administration, WWII)
- Kempeitai (literally, corps of law soldiers), part of the Imperial Japanese Army were established in 1881 as a French-style gendarmerie, and disbanded in 1945.
- The Tokeitai (特警隊, Tokkeitai?, Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, they were equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. They were also the smallest military police service.
- Special Higher Police (特別高等警察, Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu?), often shortened to Tokkō (特高, Tokkō ?) was a police force established in 1911 in Japan, specifically to investigate and control political groups and ideologies deemed to be a threat to public order. Its main function was as a civilian counterpart to the military's Kempeitai,
- National Rural Police- National force in Japan until formation of JSDF and NPA
- Luxembourg: Luxembourg Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Grand-Ducale (merged with police in 2000)
- Mexico: Rurales (Spanish for "Rurals") was the name commonly used to designate the Mexican Guardia Rural (Rural Guard): a force of mounted police or gendarmerie that existed between 1861 and 1914. In modern Mexico the name is applied to members of a part-time Rural Defence Corps
- Palestine (British Mandate): Palestine Gendarmerie
- Philippines: 1981 - 1989: Philippine Constabulary (until it became the basis of the Philippine National Police)
- Russian Empire: Special Corps of Gendarmes (1836–1917)
- US Forces in West Germany: United States Constabulary (1946–1952)
- United States Indian Territory: Lighthorse
gendarmerie in Catalan: Gendarmeria
gendarmerie in Czech: Četnictvo
gendarmerie in Danish: Gendarm
gendarmerie in German: Gendarmerie
gendarmerie in Spanish: Gendarmería
gendarmerie in Persian: ژاندارمری
gendarmerie in French: Gendarmerie nationale
gendarmerie in Croatian: Žandarmerija
gendarmerie in Italian: Gendarmeria
gendarmerie in Hebrew: ז'נדרמריה
gendarmerie in Hungarian: Csendőrség
gendarmerie in Dutch: Gendarmerie
gendarmerie in Japanese: 国家憲兵
gendarmerie in Norwegian: Gendarmeri
gendarmerie in Norwegian Nynorsk: Gendarmeri
gendarmerie in Polish: Żandarmeria
gendarmerie in Russian: Жандармерия
gendarmerie in Slovenian: Žandarmerija
gendarmerie in Finnish: Santarmi
gendarmerie in Swedish: Gendarmeri
gendarmerie in Turkish: Jandarma
gendarmerie in Walloon: djindåmreye
gendarmerie in Chinese: 憲兵